Celestial Globe

Astronomy

Accession Number: 2019.ast.272

Description:

This is a medium-sized celestial globe standing on a round metal base. The base is brown and simply decorated by circular ridges. A central pillar rises from this base, supporting a metal semi-circular ring that in turn supports a ring that runs vertically around the full circle of the globe, connected to it at the top and bottom (the meridian). This is broader on the outside, and marked with a scale graduated in degrees on the interior of both sides of the ring. At the top of the ring, this is labelled “Co-LATITUDE”. This ring can be rotated in the the semi-circular support, enabling the globe’s inclination to be altered.

Around the equator of the globe there is a broad wooden ring with a paper scale stuck to its upper surface. This shows several concentric scales. The outer most is divided into large equal segments, labelled with months. Inside this is a ring dividing these months into days of the year, labelled in 5s up to the final day of the year (28, 30, or 31). Inside this, a scale divided into degrees of a quarter circle and marked in tens from 0 to 90. Inside this, a ring divided into segment labelled with the names of zodiac constellations. Inside this, a ring divided into 24 segments and labelled with hours (0 to 24) and AM and PM. Inside this, scale dividing the 24 sections into six segments, indicating minutes.

The globe itself is cream and brown coloured, and formed of segments of paper that are narrower at the top of the bottom so they fit together to form a spherical picture (gores). These are covered by a shiny varnish. The globe depicts celestial objects such as important stars and galacies. These are named. Constellations are outlined with red lines, and named in both Latin and English. Areas of the sky around these are indicated by dotted lines, and the milky way is shown by a darker area formed by red-brown dots. An equator and ecliptic are marked. Some origins for meteor showers are marked, with associated dates.

At the top of the the globe there is a circular metal piece curved to fit the globe’s surface, a portion of which is inset from the rest. This is graduated into 24 portions and marked with the numbers 1 through 12 twice. One side is marked “A.M.” the other “P.M.”

Primary Materials:

Metal: Iron Alloy, Wood, Paper, Plastic[?]

Markings:

In a cartouche on the globe: “C. S. HAMMOND & CO., INC.
NEW YORK – BROOKLYN
12 INCH CELESTIAL GLOBE
Designed by Comm. Stubbs R.N.R.
PRINTED IN U.S.A.”

On the circular metal piece at the top of the globe: “DENOYER-GEPPERT CO. CHICAGO, ILL.
PATENTED”

In raised lettering on the support that holds up the exterior semi-circular ring: “MADE IN U.S.A.
D-G CO. CHICAGO”

Function:

This globe was likely designed to teach students about the features of the night sky, and to do basic astronomical calculations.

Condition:

Good: The base of the globe is in very good condition, with a few lighter coloured smudges visible. The enamel exterior of the semi-circular bracket that supports the globe’s meridian circle is scratched over its surface. The exterior edge of the meridian circle is worn and scratched, particularly on the top.

The paper scale on the horizon band is in good condition and remains affixed to the wood around the circumference of the globe, although yellowed. In places, it has minor scratches and marks where the surface has been scratched off. There also appear to be a few drops of white substance, perhaps paint, on this, and on the globe. The month names are very faded.

The globe is yellowed over its surface, but in good condition (not cracking or significantly scratched). In a large patch over one side on the upper hemisphere of the globe, the varnish coating is browned and roughened.

Associated Instruments: 2019.ast.274

Manufacturer: C. S. Hammond & Co., Inc.

Date of Manufacture: Mid-20th Century

Provenance:

This globe was likely purchased for teaching by the Department of Physics or the Department of Astronomy & Astrophysics at the University of Toronto. In the 2000s, it was found in a room in the McLennan Physical Laboratories building on the U of T St George campus, and moved to the Astronomy Library for storage and display.